Kentish and Surrey Mercury 27th November 1858
Wednesday, 22 October 2014
Sunday, 19 October 2014
Timeline of Transatlantic Telecommunications
1600 William Gilbert publishes De Maqnete (On Magnets)
1821 Andre Ampere establishes the elementary laws of electrodynamics
1850 - Lord Kelvin defines relationship between resistance, inductance and capacitance of an oscillatory circuit
Pierre Guitard observes 'coherence' of dust particles in air when electrified
Proposal that a telegraph cable could run between St Johns Newfoundland and Ireland to connect old and new world
1858 First transatlantic telegraph cable completed (but fails after 3 weeks due to insulation breakdown) Lord Kelvin develops the mirror galvanometer
1872 Loomis awarded US Patent 129971 for his 'aerial telegraph system' but fails to turn his discovery into commercial success.
Canadian Reginald Fessenden patents radiotelephony
1904 John Ambrose Fleming invents the thermionic diode
Fessenden demonstrates radiotelephony over 40km in USA
1905 Fessenden invents the superheterodyne circuit
1915 New York-San Francisco cable uses telephone amplifiers
1927 USA - UK radiotelephone service commences
1957 USSR launches first man-made satellite (Sputnik 1) with a 96 minute, 229/946km elliptical orbit
1990 Tim Berners-Lee working at CERN devises the World Wide Web operating over the INTERNET
Wednesday, 24 September 2014
Preserved Gas holders
This post has evolved from one I did a couple of days ago on Greenwich.gov.uk. This was about the gasholder conference organised by the Institution of Gas Engineers last week. As a result a number of people have asked about gasholders around the world which have been converted to this and that - and so I have prepared this posting solely on that subject. Thank you to all the people who have sent links and information - some of which are replicated below.
One of the papers at the Conference was on gas holder conversions (and I will come to Kings Cross later). Russell described conversions at:
Gasometer City, Vienna - shopping malls, flats and offices
Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam - used for creative industries.
Gaswerks, Augsberg - museum
Gaswerks Shoneberg, Berlin - event space and a structure resembling the Reichstag Dome
Leipzeig - commercial exhibition space and panoramas
Tauchrevier Gasometer, Duisberg -indoor diving centre
Hobro Gasworks, Denmark - museum
Stockholm Gasworks, Sweden - cultural venues
Turku, Finland - public spaces and music events
Museo del Gas, Barcelona - museum
Suvilahti, Helskini, Finland - cultural events and a circus school
Technopolis, Athens - industrial museum and cultural centre
MAN Gasholder, Oberhausen - cultural venue and landmark
The Gas Works, Dublin - now contains 240 flats
Newstead Gas Works Plaza, Australia - now a 'public plaza'
Kallang Gas Works, Singapore - now an arena in a park
Oestre Gasveark Teater, Copenhagen - now a theatre
Gefle Gasverks, Sweden - now a theatre
and did it with great slides and detail. I am not sure of the status of his report and if a link through to it would be acceptable to IGE,
I did a brief article on gas holder reuse in a GIHS Newsletter over ten years ago - none of the web links I quoted work any more. But I have put what information I have below.
The links below gives information on holders in Continental Europe and America. They are usually brick built structures - for the simple reason that in areas with very, very cold winters the water sealed holders used in Britain are just not practical. They are described on one site as "giant masonry round towers with several narrow windows and covered by metallic cupolas." - and those in St.Petersburg as "40 meters in diameter and stands 20 meters tall" They were built in 1872 and the same architect designed permanent circus buildings. . However look and see what is being done with them:
Vienna - Simmering - One of the most famous examples of re-use of gas holders has been 'gasometer city' at Simmering. Read about it here - and much more than one holder is involvedhttp://www.archi-ninja.com/excellent-examples-of-adaptive-reuse/ and here are some reviews of their use as a shopping mall, albeit each with a different designer http://www.yelp.co.uk/biz/gasometer-wien and here's their web site http://www.wiener-gasometer.at/en
Liepzeig - A link to a picture of the gas holder in Leipzeig can be found at http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1592582&page=9 and there is more about its conversion into a panometer in the America industrial archaeology magazine, below, which also describes the one in Dresden.
- the following link is to an article about a reinforced concrete gas holder in Dresden which has been turned into a art gallery for a panorama - and has renamed the holder as a 'panometer'.
Berlin - and here's a description of new flats in an old holder.
Amsterdam - where a gasholder - one more of type we would recognise is now a feature in a park. Read a wildlife based web site on ithttp://www.sachimiyachi.com/workCO-B1.html and here's the whole story on their web site
Milan - Bovisa. What is happening here is more confused - and not helped by the way that some web sites seem to translate 'gas works' as 'gasometer'. An old holder - of the type we would recognise - seems to be still standing on a site which has now been redeveloped as a Polytechnic. There seem to have been a number of plans for the holder but the current state is unclear, to me at least. There seems to be a plan to build a new library which looks like it. Perhaps someone could clarify this for me.
Florence While I am entirely unsure what at sceneographic nucleus is, and sure its very nice and here is something about the holder there - again one we would recognise http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/itineraries/place/FormerGasometer.html
Dublin - this is a bit nearer home, and a holder of a type we would recognise. This is a housing project. http://omparchitects.com/en/projects/the-gasworks/
St Petersburg - a site with several holders is under consideration - information at
http://www.arch.umd.edu/sites/arch.umd.edu/files/attachments/projects/Gasholders_Studio-2012_final.pdf and here is another picture http://wikimapia.org/14125214/Gasholder-house
Stockholm - and a plan for data storage centres. https://gigaom.com/2013/04/04/caves-ships-and-aging-gasometers-3-unlikely-homes-for-data-centers/
SO - Here we have a ground breaking scheme at Kings Cross where one holder has recently been re-erected and the landmark 'triplets' are to become - well landmarks, and housing. We had a very good presentation from a developer and I wonder if a link to the paper would be possible??
Meanwhile I have been kindly sent the following link to the architects web site http://www.bellphillips.com/project/gasholder-8/
Also - I have been sent information on a campaign in Hornsey to save the gasholder there from destruction, and also something from Edinburgh.
After all - we only invented the things.
PS My attention has been drawn to the latest edition of the Newcomen Society's 'Links' (9/14). This describes a Society visit to Moravia and Silesia - from which the following is an extract:
"the full impact of the Vitkovice Ironworks became clear. Steel-making finished in 1998 on this fully integrated site, with its own coal mine, coke ovens, four blast furnaces, steel-making furnaces and rolling mills. In 1994, nearly 35,000 people worked here and .... it has applied for UNESCO World Heritage Site status. ............................ The gas-holder has been turned into a concert hall and a reception area for the tour of No 1 blast furnace – the smallest of the four.
Thursday, 11 September 2014
So – your ideas and information very welcome. Are there any remains of it under the river somewhere??
Friday, 29 August 2014
It should be noted - for those who visit Woolwich - that one of the pavilions of the Royal Chemical Laboratories has now been repaired and done up - it would be interesting to know exactly how this has been done, what relevance remains to its earlier role, what is to happen to it now, what will it be used for, and will there be any interpretation of its earlier importance - and who will write that??? Information would be wonderful - it has been claimed that they are the earliest purpose built industrial buildings remaining in Britain.
Everyone is urged to visit the very excellent gunpowder mills exhibition site at Waltham Abbey and to learn more about this important national industry and have a great day out. http://www.royalgunpowdermills.com/
I am publishing these here in order to further local, Borough of Greenwich, knowledge about the importance of work at the Arsenal and that it was not only a place where guns were made. If these synopses are seen as someone's copyright please email and they will be removed.