Monday, 25 May 2020

William Lindley

We are receiving a number of articles and information about engineer William Lindley - some of it is in a posting on the GIHS Facebook page. 

Lindley - when he wasn't designing public services in Europe - lived in Shooters Hill Road.  Here is an article which Blackheath historian, Neil Rhind, wrote about him in 1998:


There simply is no shortage of erudition when it comes to the research and writing of books, which also prove to have a Blackheath interest. And because of my local knowledge there is also no shortage of scholars and researchers beating a path to my door, eager to clarify a reference and seek what little information I might have on their pet subject. They then embarrass me with fulsome thanks in prefaces for very small contributions indeed.  In fact, I should thank them because without such investigation I would know very little of the importance of all sorts of unlikely things.

Take the drains for example.  There are few things more pleasing than a clean drain except the act of unblocking it and watching the water run freely away with a satisfying gurgle.  That is what was not happening in London and most European capitals in the first half of the 19th century.  The Romans knew what to do but their successors managed to forget the techniques.  As cities grew larger and larger so did the problems.

London was quite frightful with the Thames and the small rivers, which flowed into it, being used as the main sewer and, quite often, as the source of drinking water as well.  Such was the smell that even members of Parliament in the House of Commons were appalled and, on occasion, unable to continue their work.

So it was decided that the long-suffering rate- and taxpayer would meet the cost of solving London’s drainage and sewer problems.  Also, the Thames in central London would be embanked.  And embanked it was.  Under the inspiring leadership of engineer Joseph Bazelgette London was properly drained as well.  It was a massive civil engineering undertaking and created one of the, lasting wonders of the modern world, and still in use to day.  Walk the London embankments at Charing Cross and visit the giant Crossness engine house at Belvedere and you will see what I mean.

The volume under scrutiny concerns something rather similar but in Warsaw, Budapest and Prague.  These ancient capitals also suffered from drainage and water problems.  It took an Englishman (more properly Englishmen) to sort things out.  They were the Lindley family, resident of No 74 Shooters Hill Road from 1860.

I knew, from short biographical notes, that they had been up to their elbows in European drains, so to speak, but I put much down to personal hyperbole. Not so – and it took a visit from Professor Ryszard Zelichowski, of Warsaw, hot on the trail of these wondermen, to banish my ignorance.  He is the Dale Porter of the Warsaw water and drain systems and had learned that the Lindleys were Blackheath people.  You could have knocked me down with the proverbial feather when he explained to me how distinguished they were.  And last year Ryszard published a special volume to mark the 110th anniversary of the Warsaw water supply works. 

It all started with engineer/architect Joseph Lindley (1806-1880) who moved to Blackheath in 1860.  His brother William (1808-1890), in the same profession, “rebuilt” Hamburg after the fire in 1842 and then earned an international reputation as a water and sewage engineer, sorting out Warsaw in the 1870s.   His sons, William Heerlein and Robert Searles carried on the good work, ensuring happy healthy populations across the Continent, designing and supervising water and drainage schemes in Prague, Bucharest, Frankfurt, Petrograd, and so on. They were rarely at home. William snr’s daughter, Julia, lived on at No 74, keeping house for the family, until her death in 1937.  It is also extraordinary, in the local context, that old Joseph had married the daughter of Michael Searles (1752-1813) the architect, inter alia, of the Paragon.  William Heerlein Lindley was knighted in 1911 and lived at No 17 Kidbrooke Park Road for a short while during the Great War.

Of course, I would like to say more but, alas, my Polish is scant. Nevertheless, Prof. Zelichowski tells me that the volume he sent to me is the shorter popular version and that he is working on an extended version, which he hopes will be published in English in due course.  At least I think I know what the szluzmajster did and the word filtro, cisnien and pomp seem to have a familiar ring about them.

You will have to send to Warsaw for Ryszard Zelichowski’s volume and I am not sure how many zlotys you will need but I can make enquiries.  Professor Porter’s definitive tome will be issued here in due course and for those details I must wait.  The publisher is the University of Akron Press, Ohio.  Enquiries to its web site:

the article is Neil's copyright and must not be reproduced.

Saturday, 23 May 2020

Charlton's other waterworks.

So - this is the second episode following yesterdays post, and facebook page mystery picture, about Charlton's water works  - first - back to John Smith's History of Charlton.

After the Woolwich Road well was found to be contaminated the Kent Water Company needed to find another site.  In 1864 they leased a site in an old chalk quarry.  This was on the south side of the railway line, and the west side of Charlton Lane. Today it is the site of Prentis Court housing.

Once again they got a Cornish pumping engine from Harvey's of Hayle and began pumping water in 1865.  This did no better than the previous site and after nine years it was closed.  The well is described " Yielded 1,500,000 gallons per diem and although the water is not considered sufficiently reliable for domestic use it would be suitable for street watering or other non domestic purposes.

"The engines and boilers were removed for reuse to Farnborough in 1879"  by Farnborough they mean Orpington.  And I have to thank Richard Albanese for details of the engines and pictures of Orpington.  He says: dates for the engines don't match as they are given as 1880 and 1885.... Its likely that these are the installation dates at Orpington even though secondhand. I suspect also that the engines were probably heavily rebuilt and modernised at the same time to operate on higher pressure steam with new pumpworks to suit new well depth and delivery to alternative reservoir and head of supply.

and, Richard says..  in 1948 ......

...... at Orpington ,.. electric pumps were installed in the wells and proposals were underway to discontinue the use of steam engines ... and (surprisingly) retain engines 1 & 2 for historical interest in terms of any parts inside the engine house. I had not heard of this before but it did happen as the photos show attached around 1950. The engines were fully broken up though later and i'm fairly certain that the buildings were demolished soon after c'1958-60?

and sent us these pictures:

Boilers at Orpington 

View showing Engine in motion.

Closer view, piston near the bottom of its stroke.

                            Piston higher up the cylinder.

In 1881 the site was leased to the Plumstead District Waterworks Company and they put a small pump there but the water could only be used for non-domestic things, like dust laying in the roads. Around 1900 the well was sealed but the engine house remained on site until 1910.  The site became allottments but was bought by Harveys in 1936 and Prentis Court was built as company housing.  We posted on this blog in 2014 a report of the opening of the estate in 1952 by future Tory Prime Minister,Harold Macmillan.

Finally  .... Richard says - All material to be credited to Thames Water Collection and London Museum of Water & Steam please.  (Thames water have an online historic photo collection now - which we at Kew gave a lot of help with. Lots of Kent and London water supply pics to explore!)
Its very likely that parts of one of the engines valve gear are preserved in store at London Museum of Water & Steam - see pics 261-3. Ive often wondered where we got them from as there are no records as they were brought in by MWB.
Also: London Metropolitan Archives hold the Thames Water historic records collection. Theres a big chance that drawings and contracts for both engines and buildings are there.

Friday, 22 May 2020

Charlton's Water Works

Now - I put this picture on the GIHS Facebook page and asked people to tell me where it was

Now only one person got it right - Congratulations Peter Luck - it's Woolwich Road looking east towards the bottom of Charlton Lane.   Here's another picture from some years later

Now, none of you, not even Peter twigged why I thought the picture was interesting.  Well its the big building centre left.  Its a water works building - and this is just the first one - you never knew Charlton had two water works, did you?

The next bit comes from the estimable History of Charlton by the late John Smith.  He says that in 1857 the Kent Water Company dug a deep well at Charlton.  Its actually marked on the 1867 Ordnance Survey Map.  They built this pumping station and installed a pumping engine from Harvey & Co. of Hayle in Cornwall.  But within six years it was taken out of use because the well was becoming contaminated with river water - and a nearby new sewer didn't help. So it was shut down and the engine was sent to the Cold Bath Well at Deptford - that's one of the wells at the Brookmill Site which also was originally built by the Kent Water Co.  The engine seems to have ended up however at the Crayford Water Works, which was rebuilt in 1954.  A history of Crayford says that two statues of Sir Walter Scott were removed from the decorative metalwork on the engine and preserved. Has anyone got them??

So - the earliest of the Charlton Water Works closed down and was let to a building contractor. From the earlier photograph above it appears to be the sort of building you expect of a 19th century waterworks.  In the lower picture it has lost most of its decoration but has had an extension built.  It was then in use by the Grafton Engineering Co.  There seem to be many Grafton Engineering Cos around and this is described as being 'a general engineers and cabinet makers'.

so - what happened to Charlton and its water supply. More to come later..................

Wednesday, 29 April 2020

Midgie Dolphin - the girl who trained with Merryweather's

Neil Bennett has sent us these notes on Midgie Dolphin  ....................  read on ...................

Miss Midgie or Midge Dolphin (once given confusingly as Dolphni) appears to have been ‘trained’ for appearances in films involving ‘stunt’ or ‘action’ sequences at Merryweather& Sons.

She would have met the famous and flamboyant company boss, James Compton Merryweather. In 1912 he was aged 72 (and had five years to live). JCM, as well as a fire-fighter, engineer and businessman was a considerable publicist for his fire-fighting equipment and fire engine company Merryweather& Sons. Known as ‘The Fire King’ he placed thousands upon thousands of newspaper adverts, wrote signed letters to newspapers and almost certainly, with editors’ approval, placed many newspaper articles he had written himself, to keep the company name in the public eye world-wide.

As for Midgie/Midge Dolphin, the ‘training’, rehearsals and the photos and publicity, would have kept her, and the company, in the news. Did she initiate the visit(s) to Merryweather’s (in Greenwich, London), or her father or someone with a view to her career, or James Merryweather himself? Was she accompanied in the visit? JCM and his staff were accustomed to training provincial private fire brigades, including ones for schools and ones exclusively women. But he would surely have taken a decently reserved pleasure in the company of a 13-year old ‘film actress’.

Here are the newspaper clippings I found, all related to stage appearances..…can we find what film(s) Midgie appeared in, beforehand, or later (benefitting from her Merryweather training)? Did her career lead anywhere?

The clippings and other sources indicate that she danced at the Aldwych in Jan 1912 in five small plays collectively known as ‘The Golden Land of Fairy Tales’, and in the same year 1912 she was the fairy Mustardseed in ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream’ in the play revived by Sir Herbert Tree at the Gaiety, Manchester. (Stage Yearbook)

She appeared in ‘Theodore and Co’ aged 16 in 1916. She was the daughter of the stage manager of ‘Daly’s’, whose name I don’t know [see below], although there was a chap called Wilfred H Dolphin, an actor, who may have been relevant.

Daly’s was a Leicester Square theatre where ‘Vue West End’ now stands, at no.2 Cranbourn Street. It was the last theatre in the Square to be demolished, in 1937, in favour of the oncoming ‘picture houses’.

…see cuttings below, from ‘British Newspaper Archive’I seem to have exhausted the information on Wikipedia and the Internet….

Also no trace of her in ‘Encyclopedia of British Film’. At that time actors were not highly paid and considered on a par with electricians and mechanics. Films, which would of course have been silent and black & white, were often destroyed and recycled for their silver content.

Daily Mirror 6 Feb 1914
(Please note the precise wording – do we trust the Daily Mirror?) So far no luck (speaking as an engineer) in identifying the crane, or whether it belonged to Merryweather’s.


Further looking finds references to her in The Stage 20 Apr 1911 p.19 as Mustardseed; The Tatler 8 Nov 1916 with photo and her drawings, Sunday Pictorial 26 Nov 1916 with pics and Daily Mirror 11 Oct 1917, with pics, where aged 18 she married Major Edwards RGA (Royal Garrison Artillery). Maybe she then gave up her acting career…?

George A M Dyson writes

I can tell you a little more about Midge. She was Margaret Flora Stuart Dolphin, daughter of a couple from Manchester, Walter and Matilda Dolphin, who had evidently moved south shortly before Midge was born at Catford in 1900. Her father was a musician, and he was obviously keen to put his whole family on the stage, not just Midge.

The Dolphins evidently moved around. They were in Fulham by the time the 1901 Census, and in a boarding house in Lambeth in 1911, and, though she was a south-east London girl by birth, I don’t know where Midge would have been living when she used
Merryweather’s premises to practice her stunts. But with JCM keen to make sales in the theatre world it looks like a smart move on his part. (Around the time of 1914there were few if any new installations of Merryweather theatre safety curtains, perhaps as a result of the oncoming cinemas, until the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, Stratford, in 1932).

As for what became of her later, all that I know is that she married a second time, in 1938. Sydney Burnet Edwards had served in the South African Horse Artillery before transferring to the RGA, and incidentally at some point he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO), though I’ve not found any report of how he earned that award. So, if he was South African, it may be that they spent the 1920s and 30s in S Africa, and as far as I know S African historical records aren’t easily available anywhere. If she did maintain her career there ought to be some kind of press records of that, but I haven’t looked and I wouldn’t know the best way to do it.

What is clear enough is that in Islington in 1938 Margaret F S Edwards or Dolphin married Charles H Cartwright. No reason to assume she was a divorcee – I assume Sydney had died. And I notice that at Crosby in Lancashire in 1940 the birth of a child Michael Y Cartwright was registered with the mother’s name given as Dolphin; I can’t find a newspaper notice of that birth (nor of the 1938 marriage), and there’s no proof that’s Midge and Charles, but I think it’s more likely to have been them than another couple with the same names.

I hope all that is interesting. It would have been nice to round off the record for you by finding an obituary for Margaret F S Cartwright, but I haven’t found anything.

Five index entries, which record (in chronological order) -

Midge’s birth; we learn later that she was actually born in Nov 1899, but a bit of a delay in registering a birth isn’t unusual.
Her marriage to Maj Edwards.
Her marriage – under the two surnames – to Charles Cartwright – in 1917 and 1938 the index gives all three initials, and that’s how I’ve been able to identify her in the birth registers and the 1901 and 1911 censuses too; but with three forenames myself I’m not surprised to see the third one went missing in later records!
The entry from the national population Register taken in England & Wales in September 1939, for 152 Widdenham Road, Islington; it’s hard to know which of them is being described as incapacitated.
An entry from the National Probate Index; the matching entry in the death register index for the Colchester registration district tells us that this Margaret Flora Cartwright was 62 years old, which fits with what we know of Midge.

I’ve no idea who the woman who administered her estate was. It doesn’t look as though her life after marrying Maj Edwards was as glamorous as we might have hoped – but you never know, ‘dresses etc’ might have been haute couture, and she might have bestowed a fortune on her nearest and dearest before she died. But I suspect not.

b   10 Nov 1899
d    7 Feb 1962 age 62 as Margaret Flora Cartwright, then of Frinton, – effects  £130/16/0

Wednesday, 8 April 2020

Message to all Members and Friends

Dear GIHS Members

This is to let you know that the meeting scheduled for Tuesday 14 April WILL NOT TAKE PLACE. Because of Coronavirus we have cancelled ALL MEETINGS until after the summer. 

Your GIHS committee will continue to monitor -- as far as we can -- the industrial heritage of Greenwich. We will be grateful for any input you can offer. We will remain concerned about and alert to planning applications on industrial sites, the demolition of the gas holder, the Charlton and Woolwich sites with recent planning enquiries, the Arsenal, Deptford Creek and so on.  We appreciate any assistance you can give in these difficult times. Please keep your eyes open and let us know about anything we should know about. 

Because we have had to cancel the programme for the beginning of 2020, we are going to waive all subscription fees until the end of 2021.

In the autumn of 2020, so long as the pandemic is over, we plan to come back with an exciting programme of talks, running through until summer 2021. 

Meanwhile we have been thinking about the venue for our events, but we'd welcome your views. The Old Bakehouse benefits from easy access by public transport, but is limited in size. Do you have any suggestions of alternative locations? Would anyone enjoy afternoon sessions? Would anyone like us to record sessions or even transmit them live by YouTube, Facebook or some other medium?

"While we are not having meetings we are still very busy on-line and are always happy to publish items of news on our Facebook page - and look forward to comments and discussion on items which appear there.  Longer articles are more than welcome for the GIHS blog.  You will also be glad to see that we also now have an Instagram and a Twitter account'.  Please send items to

We shall continue to be in touch with as many of you as possible via email. We know there are some of you who do not use the internet and therefore may not see this email. If you know of anyone like this, please let them -- and us -- know. 

Alan Burkitt-Gray
Mary Mills
Elizabeth Pearcey

Thursday, 26 March 2020

Greenwich Materials Recycling Facility

By Richard Buchanan

The Blackheath Scientific Society had a visit to the Greenwich Materials Recycling Facility on 16 Jan 2007. Numbers were limited to ten. Unlike other Councils, the Greenwich philosophy is to ask people to put all dry waste in one blue top bin, and to collect it with a single lorry. They then separate it at a mixed, dry, recycling plant. 

The plant occupies a big grey building at the far end of Nathan Way, Plumstead. Mr Peter Dalley, the manager, took us round, on a first floor walkway, and showed us the various machines which are linked by rising conveyor belts. The day we went there was much rubbish on the floor under the conveyors, and paper/plastic separation did not seem as good as it might have been, though presumably acceptable.

The first process is bag splitting, so any pre-sorting one might have done is nullified. Then oversized items are removed with a Trommel Screen, to be manually sorted. This is followed by a Ballistic Separator (a large spinning drum) which does an initial sort of containers from paper. Containers are separated into iron, aluminium and glass: a Magnet (people with pacemakers are not let on the visit) takes out iron cans etc; an Eddy Current separator removes aluminium; leaving glass. Plastic bags, paper and a residue remain. An infra-red lamp detects Plastic and drives a puffer machine to separate it from paper. Paper is sorted first automatically, and then manually - it is important that no glass gets into it, though small wispy pieces of plastic are tolerated. The last piece of equipment is a Baler. Some incoming waste, such as bulk paper from a business, can go straight to the baler. 

Depending on market prices, particularly for plastics, extra manual sorting can be done. Manual Sorters work two or three to a room about 6 m (20 ft) square, for seven hour days, no shift lasting more them four hours. The plant is run with a staff of about 20 per shift.

Mr Dalley took questions afterwards and outlined future plans. He gave various prices: Paper for newsprint earns £250 per ton; Cleanaway, who take the baled waste, put up £6m towards the cost of the plant; National Land Fill permits come with a fine of £150/ton for excess; and an EU fine of F/Wday; a waste disposal lorry costs £125,000; wheelie bins for 120, 240 & 330 litre capacity cost £25, £18 & £40. 

At present 72% of residents voluntarily use blue top bins, and produce high grade waste. It is proposed to revise the use of bins so that all residents use blue-top bins for dry waste and green-top bins for kitchen and garden waste – with weekly collection for both. Other waste would be put in a bag and collected fortnightly. Biodegradble Cornstarch bags would be used for kitchen waste - fitting in a kitchen container, tied off when full and put in the green-top bin. 

It is proposed to build an anaerobic digester for green waste so that methane given off as it rots can be fed to a Combined Heat and Power plant (better than a garden compost bin venting to the atmosphere). If restaurant waste were properly sorted this too would be taken and would improve digester efficiency. Other by-products would be a good quality top soil and liquid fertiliser, both useable by the Council. In the future it might be worthwhile to adapt the digester to produce hydrogen

Reviews and Snippets from April 2007

Reviews and Snippets from April 2007

The Sustainable Historic Arsenals Regeneration Partnership (SHARP) was formed between the EU nations of England, Malta, Estonia and Spain to share lessons learned while seeking new futures for these culturally important but neglected former military sites. As lead partner in the part EU-funded project, English Heritage reviewed the story of the rescue, conservation and re-use of the former Royal Arsenal, Woolwich - an example of the contribution that heritage can make to social, economic and cultural regeneration. This was followed by investigation of the challenges and opportunities presented by comparable sites in Malta, Spain and Estonia. In Malta, the aim is to revitalise a succession of military sites adjoining the Grand Harbour; at Cadiz it is to bring back into public view the fortifications that repulsed Napoleon's army; while at Tallinn it is to help the citizens of the young Republic of Estonia to understand their complex past under Russian Imperial, Soviet and Nazi rule. Each of these projects is providing fascinating lessons and outcomes.

A recent conference on SHARP centred on the launch of a book Regeneration from Heritage. This glossy and lavishly illustrated publication outlines the Historical background to the sites involved in the scheme (Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, Battery Tallinin, Grand Harbour Malta and the Real Carenero Arsenal). It described a number of themes in relation to the sites – Masterplanning, Partnerships, Heritage, Tourism, Education and Sustainable Regeneration. It is published by English Heritage (no price or details given on it).

The Severndroog Castle Campaign has heard from Awards for All England that the application for funding has been successful! And they have been awarded £6,035 for their "Audience Development Project". This will pay for: a laptop and accessories (like bag/ remote for presentations / cordless mouse), software, multimedia projector, display boards, promotional materials (bookmarks/ business cards) to advertise our new website, a year's membership to Volunteering England, digital camera and web design and development training.

The Winter 2007 edition of Industrial Heritage contains an article by Mary Mills on ‘An explosion Two Hundred Years Ago’. This is about the Tide Mill which once stood near the Pilot Pub on the Greenwich Peninsula and the explosion in the boiler of a steam engine supplied by Richard Trevithick there. Industrial Heritage published by Hudson History,

The preceding issue of Industrial Heritage ran an article ‘Crossness Engines to the Rescue’ by Peter Skilton.This is about the Stewart & Co. steam engine which was at the David Evans silk works in Crayford and its subsequent rescue and removal to Crossness when Evans closed.

Woodlands Farm are about to reach their tenth anniversary and we must all congratulate them. They are appealing for any old photographs of the Farm which can be used in an anniversary exhibition. They are about to launch a sustainable food growing scheme on the 341 Shooters Hill site – the area once occupied by the Blackheath donkeys.

Crossness DVD. Crossness Engines have now produced a DVD of the first public steaming of Prince Consort on 4th April 2004. This is £8 from their shop on visitors’ days or by post (plus £1.50 p&p) from Crossness Engines Trust, The Old Works, Thames Water STW, Belvedere Road, Abbey Wood, SE2 9AQ.

Crossness are also advertising for people to help with gardening at the site – lots and lots of fresh air (and not too smelly either).

Dockyards – we have recently received both the newsletter and the Journal of the Naval Dockyards Society. Clearly our area had two of the most important of the Royal Dockyards at Deptford and Woolwich. Strange then that these two publications – once again – make no mention of either while they go on and on and on about Portsmouth and so on. Is this our fault for not sending stuff to them? Or do they really want to ignore us? Is there a nasty suspicion that the Deptford site, arguably that of the foremost of the Royal Dockyards, will be redeveloped with hardly a mention of its illustrious past?

We have been sent a copy of the latest publication by the South East London Industrial Archaeology group. Bizarrely this is about the Sherburn and South Milford Gas Company – but that shouldn’t take away from the many merits of this interesting little book. It is by SELIA’s Chris Rule and is available for £3.75 from SEILA Ltd. , 35 Grange Grove, London, N1 2NP and is worth every penny of it. Highly recommended.

Greenwich Historical Society have published their latest Journal now edited by Julian Watson. It contains articles by several people who are also members of GIHS – but in particular it is dedicated to, and contains eulogies to, the late Alan Pearsall. Alan was of course a GIHS member and gave a number of talks to us but one of his major tasks in Greenwich historical circles was as editor of GHS’s Journal. There are articles about him by Professor Roger Knight, Pieter van der Merwe (actually a poem) and Julian Watson.

Other articles are about the theft of Nelson’s replicas from the Painted Hall by Anthony Cross, and Richard Cheffins' work on Greenwich in Parliament.

Labour Party Staff. A Century of Serving 1906-2006. We have been sent a copy of this book by Labour Party Regional Organiser Terry Ashton. Woolwich was of course the home of the earliest organised Labour Party in Britain and the first mini-biography in the book is about William Barefoot. He is described as having built in Woolwich "a strong local party, a model for the whole country"… he was “the organizing genius who made it all happen”.

Swiftstone Trust. We have the latest newsletter of the Trust which cares for the Swiftstone tug and it describes work on the tug and the difficulties encountered since the redevelopment of Wood Wharf. They are hopeful for donations, so don’t disappoint them if you write.
Matchless and AMC - celebration of Woolwich-made machines at Firepower. AMC Event - Sunday 9th September 2007. In total, some 53,400 Matchless machines were contracted for supply throughout the conflict of WWII and many stayed in use during the 1950's with the final machines being disposed through public auction in the 1960's. Examples of these and many more from both the pre- and post-war models from AJS, Matchless and all those other manufacturers within or associated with the AMC Group will be on display and ridden at the event on 9th September.

Wartime memories of Shooters Hill and Woolwich Common. Shooters Hill was of great strategic importance during World War Two forming part of an Anti Invasion Stop Line as well as hosting elements of the defences of London such as Anti-Aircraft Guns and Barrage Balloons. As part of a research and education project, local archaeologist Andy Brockman is recording the military archaeology of the Shooters Hill/Woolwich Common area. This includes both structures such as Pill Boxes, trenches and other sites used by the Army, RAF and Home Guard as well as buildings and sites used by the civilian services such as the Police, Fire and Ambulance Services and the ARP Service. If you or members of your family have any memories of wartime Shooters Hill or you have photographs or memorabilia such as documents please contact

A degree in Maritime History? The Greenwich Maritime Institute is right on our doorsteps on the University site. They are currently inviting applicants for September this year to their various postgraduate courses: MA in Maritime Policy, MA in Maritime History, MBA in Maritime Management. Entry needs either a good honours degree or maritime experience.